According to the Dictionary (4)

This series of blog posts continues to spark debates and many times the responses that come are in the form of an argument about why one definition is wrong or right.
But the entire series is intended to draw the attention to the subliminal understanding of these abstract concepts in each of us and that they are not and cannot be the same for all people.
They are not objective and cannot be so defined or assessed. Thus, all we can do is be aware that we may not understand them the way other people do.
So here are some more words that we all exactly now what they mean… until we are confronted by somebody for whom they mean something completely different.

fair :
• judging by factual evidence or logical consequences, which are impersonal and objective – to analyse (T)
• to consider the effect on all involved and seek a harmonious outcome everyone can live with – to mediate (F)

• using inference and analysing factual data; to think about the ‘pros and cons’ (T)
• to reflect on other people’s wishes and needs; to think about all aspects of a idea (F)
• to mind social values and what is proper (J)

• not considering special circumstances and not being moved by the needs of either party in a conflict (T)
• being partial to a harmonious outcome for all parties equally; being moved but not favouring any (F)

right: as in being correct (as opposed to wrong):
• making the right decision with regard to knowledge and truth; to distinguish true from false (T)
• making the right gesture to another person; the right human motive (F)
• doing the right thing; behaving according to the moral standards; taking the right course of action (J)

• found in facts or data, in which it depends on elimination, analysis, logical cognition, principles or criteria (T)
• found in inner motive, in which it depends on limits and holistic understanding (F)

justice: (in the context of legal justice)
• to make better; teaching one right from wrong – reformative (J)
• to get even; pay-back for an injustice (a perceived wrong) – retributive (P)
• motivated by empathic perception of what it means to be “good” (F)
• motivated by impartial definitions of what is “fair” (T)

• making a decision based on emotions, personal motivations or partiality (T)
• making a decision based on impersonal data or impartiality; not considering the different effects on the people involved (F)

Consider what the different interpretations of these words mean for how they are used in our judicial systems.

Thank you for reading.


According to the Dictionary (3)

As a result of the different personality types dealing with information differently, people with different typename letters tend to interpret abstract concepts accordingly. But because there are only a limited number of types, we can find a pattern in these interpretations, which is the topic of this series of blog posts.
Keep in mind that the other letters in a person’s type also have an influence and that once you start thinking about the different meanings, you might see the other perspectives, but this is about the first reaction most people of a certain type have to these concepts.
So today’s words are about the position of the individual in the society – concepts that form the very basis of most ethical debates.
You may find some repeats in the below, which is a result of them having been taking from the glossary of the book (Concerto for Mankind).

individual: an organism, specimen or separate being (an “actual individual”), which can be differently perceived as:
• an individual in the human race; a human with a personal name and history, defined by his persona (E)
• an individual despite the human race; a subject with unique qualities no other being shares, defined by his unique perspective (I)
• an individual in the community, defined by his social position or name (J)
• an individual despite the community, defined by his autonomy (P)

free will: an individual’s ability to determine his own actions and beliefs within the limitations of his physical and psychological existence. This is interpreted as meaning:
• having a choice between objects in the existing, objective world (E)
• having to answer only to one’s inner self (inner judge, personal perspective) (I)
• being able to make certain choices about one’s life, with the understanding that in some cases an individual does not know best and may need direction to prevent mistakes (J)
• being able to determine every aspect of one’s own life and behaviour, in which all limitations and coercion from others are violations – the individual has the right to make his own mistakes (P)

voluntary: done according to one’s own will, in which “will” is interpreted as:
• choosing to do one’s duty, according to the moral expectations (J) as a result of experiencing group responsibility, as in belonging to the community one lives in, from which follows the duty of every member to partake in what needs to be done.
• not initiated unless asked; an agreement between independent individuals (P) as a result of experiencing self-accountability: the expectation that a person actively chooses his membership in groups and is fully accountable for the obligations that follow from this choice.

right: As in having a right (as opposed to having an obligation):
• the freedom to act as an autonomous person; a right of nature (P)
• a privilege allowed individuals within their society; a moral/legal right (J)

liberty: the perceived freedom of an individual to determine one’s own actions, thoughts and beliefs; freedom from oppression and restrictions. This can be interpreted as:
• freedom to act, speak, move and think freely, as long as others are not harmed (positive- and negative liberty)
• freedom to make autonomous decisions with regard one’s own actions and life, in which all limitations from or coercion by the environment (whether specific people or a social authority) are violations (P)
• having certain rights and privileges given by moral or legal authority; freedom from interference by others with the expectation that the needs of the group take priority (J)

• being manipulated, forced or threatened by another individual (J)
• being ordered, manipulated, forced or threatened by the tools of a social authority, ruling power or public morality; peer pressure (P)
• interference or limitations imposed by the environment (I)

Again, some of these may be more obvious to some people.
I would be interested to hear your reactions along with your typename (if you know it).

Thank you for reading.